Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that occurs in all social classes and can affect people of all ages. According to the German Diabetes Health Report 2020, the current number of people suffering from diabetes is around 7 million in Germany. The estimated number of undiagnosed diabetics is 1 to 2 million. In addition, the number of people suffering from diabetes increases by approximately 500,000 patients every year and there is no end in sight to the growth.
Basics of blood sugar regulation
The hormone insulin is produced in the islet cells of the pancreas and plays the most important role in blood sugar regulation. It is released into the blood when required. When ingested, KH enters the digestive tract where it is broken down into glucose (glucose) (see Figure 1). The glucose is transported through the intestinal wall into the blood and supplied to the body cells as a nutrient. If little or no insulin is available, the glucose accumulates in the blood and the blood sugar level rises. The insulin therefore acts as a key to allow the glucose to enter the cells.
Another function of insulin is to use the excess glucose as an energy store. This is done by converting it into storage sugar (glycogen) in muscles and liver on the one hand, and in fatty tissue on the other. This stored glycogen is later released by the liver when needed. The Liver can also produce new sugar itself, even if no food is consumed. When the glycogen stores are empty, the fatty tissue is used to produce energy. When food is consumed, insulin inhibits the liver's sugar production and the breakdown of fatty tissue.
Diabetes types and their causes
Type 1 diabetes can be recognized by initial symptoms such as polyuria (increased urine excretion), polydipsia (increased thirst) and often a pronounced weight loss. They usually develop in childhood and adolescence. Due to the limited function of the pancreas up to the failure of insulin production (see Figure 2), diabetic ketoacidosis is imminent. The first signs are often vomiting, dehydration and abdominal pain, which often leads to misdiagnosis. Through its own mechanisms, the body tries to excrete the excessive sugar content in the blood through the skin, lungs and urine.
In an advanced state of ketoacidosis, the affected person has various accompanying symptoms. The most noticeable are deep and labored breathing, with the accompanying typical fruit-like respiratory odor. If unconsciousness develops in this state, the affected person is in a so-called diabetic coma and thus in danger of life. In this situation, the person suffering from diabetes can only be treated in an intensive care unit in the hospital, because the immediate supply of insulin, fluids and minerals is then vital.
The cause of type 1 diabetes is the destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas by the body's own defence system (immune system). For example, antibodies against the islet cells or even against the body's own insulin can be found in 90 percent of all newly diagnosed type 1 diabetics. Special defence cells and signs of inflammation in the pancreatic tissue have also been identified. The self-destructive reaction of the immune system is partly hereditary. However, the trigger mechanism for the disease is still largely unexplained. One possibility is suspected to be infections.
Once type 1 diabetes has been diagnosed, therapy must be started immediately, which consists of adjusting insulin levels and self-monitoring blood sugar levels. During self-monitoring, the patient measures the sugar concentration in the blood in mg/dl or mmol/l
Type 2 diabetes is caused by a disturbed insulin action (insulin resistance) or reduced insulin production (see Figure 3), although both factors can occur together. This form of the disease is a lengthy and often unnoticed process and often occurs together with obesity, high blood pressure and lipid metabolism disorders
on. Many factors are held responsible for insulin resistance. Causes include obesity (pathological adiposity), genetic predisposition and stress.
For the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, doctors use typical signs of the disease as a guide. As with type 1 diabetes, these can include increased fluid intake, reduced performance and weight loss. If the patient has no current infections or is taking medication to explain the symptoms, the doctor determines the levels of fasting and non fasting glucose in the blood. This means that the blood glucose level is measured both eight hours after food intake and directly after a meal. The physician makes the final diagnosis when the following three criteria are met:
95 percent of all diagnosed diabetes diseases are type 2 diabetes. The latest studies show that not only diet, age and lack of exercise promote type 2 diabetes, but even air pollutants such as particulate matter and nitrogen oxides increase the potential risk of the disease. People living in conurbations are particularly affected. In a large study, people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes had higher long-term blood sugar levels (HbA1C) when they lived in regions with higher levels of particulate matter. It was found that the risk of developing type 2 diabetes was already 15 percent higher on moderately trafficked roads than in traffic-calmed residential areas. For people who lived on extremely busy roads
the risk was twice as high.
Hypoglycaemia (or hypoglycaemia) refers to a state of FC deficiency. The body's own warning signals occur with different intensities, depending on the speed of the BG drop. These symptoms can be directly attributed to glucose deficiency. At a BG of 50 - 60 mg/dl (3.0 - 4.0 mmol/l) a slight hypoglycaemia occurs. The glucose deficiency causes perception and concentration disorders. Due to the reduced degree of impairment compared to severe hypoglycaemia, the affected persons can in most cases correct these hypoglycaemia themselves. Severe hypoglycaemia results in fainting or seizures. The persons are immediately dependent on medical care. The sensitivity of the perception of hypoglycaemia decreases in the course of the diabetes disease, but can be specifically increased again through training. It is almost impossible for a type 1 diabetic to avoid hypoglycaemia. A good therapy with the aim of reducing the FC waste is
of considerable importance, especially for type 1 diabetics. In principle, the cause of hypoglycaemia is always an imbalance between insulin supply and demand. The causes can be increased physical activity, skipping meals, alcohol consumption, incipient renal insufficiency or misjudgement of the amount of CHD contained in the food.
be. Fast acting KH must be administered to correct hypoglycaemia. The counter-regulations with short-acting KH must not exceed the necessary glucose quantity. Otherwise developed
hypoglycaemia turns into hyperglycaemia, which, if not treated, develops into ketoacidosis. Such fluctuating blood glucose values should be avoided at all costs, as they favour secondary diseases.
Ketoacidosis is not only caused by overcompensation of hypoglycaemia, but in most cases by a long-term insulin deficiency. Ketoacidosis is also referred to as a severe metabolic derailment with hyperacidity of the blood. With this symptomatology there are warning signals to which the diabetic should react early. The body's own mechanisms aim to flush the excessive glucose concentration out of the organism in order to lower the blood sugar level. This manifests itself in increased thirst, increased urge to urinate and weakness. Since insulin is missing
and the glucose thus does not enter the cells, it can no longer be used as an energy supplier. The body then obtains its energy as a substitute mainly from burning fatty tissue, which in turn leads to rapid weight loss. The organism is flooded with fat breakdown products (the ketone bodies). As these ketone bodies cannot be excreted sufficiently in the urine, the majority of them remain in the blood and cause hyperacidity (ketoacidosis). The body tries to excrete the ketone bodies not only through the urine, but also through the skin and lungs. As a result, those affected in this state have a fruit-like breathing odor. From this point on, unconsciousness can occur, which is called diabetic coma. This condition is life-threatening and the affected person urgently needs medical attention. The acetone content in the urine should be measured at a blood glucose level of 240 mg/dl (13.3 mmol/l). The concentration of ketone bodies can be used to determine the severity of possible ketoacidosis. FC correction must be initiated immediately; as a guide, 20 percent of the total daily amount (bolus and base combined) must be injected in the form of short-acting insulin.
The typical everyday problem of a type 1 diabetic:
Due to the very difficult assessment of one’s own activity, the food consumed and the amount of insulin supplied in accordance with this, the blood sugar level can fluctuate greatly throughout the day. For type 1 diabetics, however, both the hyperglycaemic range (hyperglycaemia) and the hypoglycaemic range (hypoglycaemia) should be avoided if possible due to the effects and consequences described above.
What is behind the system?
The user wears an insulin pump and a sensor that continuously measures the sugar in the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The sensor as well as the pumps (depending on the system) warn the user of possible hypoglycaemia. However, the user is currently always left alone in coping.
At this point GLUCO-Professional is switched into the circuit. Our system calculates the necessary amount of glucose based on the blood sugar value from the sensor and the current state of movement. The system also takes into account via an interface how much insulin is still active and leaves this information. The system also takes into account how much insulin is still active and automatically includes this information in the calculation.
With the help of our fully automated system, we want to enable the user to manage hypoglycaemia in a targeted and safe way without getting into hypoglycaemia. If used correctly, the system can ensure that the user acts preventively to prevent hypoglycaemia from developing in the first place.
What is behind the system?
Regardless of whether the user is using a pump system with an FC sensor or traditionally uses drops of blood to determine his or her FC, with the GLUCO-Advanced the user still receives reliable assistance with our intelligent system. Before the system can start, the user must enter parameters such as blood glucose level, movement status, etc. to determine the glucose level. Furthermore the user has the possibility to send the data to monitors and to send them to his doctor.
What is behind the system?
The GLUCO-Light is the right choice for users who do not have much faith in the technology or do not suffer from hypoglycaemia as often, but still need help in such cases.
- Annual Conference "Diabetology and Endocrinology" - Rheinland Pfalz -
The ADE board of directors invites to the annual meeting of the Working Group for Diabetology and Endocrinology. The topic of this year's annual conference is "Type 1 diabetes - today and tomorrow" with practical presentations. We have a stand and present our solution to prevent or quickly eliminate hypoglycaemia!
- Annual Conference "BIO Deutschland VC start of the year 2020" - Berlin -
Berlin is an ideal hub for technology convergence. It is home to biotech, health IT, medtech and diagnostics companies and an excellent academic landscape as well as political institutions. On February 10, stakeholders from innovative industries and experts from venture capital firms, companies, start-ups and start-up projects, from research, business development and politics will meet at the Quartier Zukunft in Berlin Mitte for the start of the year.
- Fair "Arab Health” - Dubai -
We are pleased to announce that we have a stand at the largest medical device fair in the Arab region!
- Exhibition "Medica - World Forum for Medicine" - Düsseldorf -
We are pleased to announce that glucospoon is the brand ambassador for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern at Medica!
- Final of the "BPW Medical Industry" competition - Mülheim an der Ruhr -
We are among the Top 10 in Germany's only business plan competition for the medical industry 2019.
Germany's only successful business plan competition specifically for the future-oriented medical and health care industry.
- 34th Annual Conference "Diabetes and Psychology e.V." of the Diabetes and Psychology Working Group, DDG - Hamburg -
in cooperation with: Asklepios Klinik Nord - Ochsenzoll Clinic for Psychiatry and Pschotherapy
Maik Getzkow studied industrial engineering and mechanical design and has type 1 diabetes for over 12 years, thus he knows the worries and needs of the diabetes-related life very well. In his last position Maik Getzkow worked as technical coordinator for customer service and project management in the wind power industry. Since 2017, Maik Getzkow has also been supporting companies in the north of Germany as an independent product developer, helping them to realise their product concepts.
Michael Leyer has been a Professor of Business Administration of Services at the University of Rostock since 2015. His research topics focus on digitization and process management, as well as innovative business models. In addition to more than 100 international scientific publications, Prof. Leyer also disseminates his findings in practice through lectures and publications in professional journals. In addition, he works closely on research projects with companies of various industries. Besides his professorship, he is also entrepreneurially active and has founded his own consulting company in 2017, with clients throughout Germany.
After graduating from the TU Munich in management and technology, Karsten Wrede moved to Rostock to study mechanical engineering and operations research. With a focus on automation and production research and as an occupational safety expert for health services and welfare work, the product reliability and the relief of stakeholders in the health sector are especially important to him. In addition, he advises small and medium-sized production companies on safety issues.
Dijana Iloska studied in Macedonia, France, Spain and Germany and obtained her degree in molecular biotechnology. She has profound experience in microbiology and molecular biology gained in seven years with Max-Planck-Institute for Lung and Heart Research. Her work focussed on discovering molecular mechanisms involved in human lung diseases. She presented and published her results nationally and internationally. Her passion is to develop solutions that have the potential to contribute to curing human diseases.
The Glucospoon Project is funded by the Ministry of Economics, Labour and Health of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and the European Fund for Regional Development as part of the ideas competition.